# Creating a Robust, Reusable Link-Checker

With over 68,842 downloads, one of my most successful Rust projects is a nondescript little program called mdbook-linkcheck. This is a link-checker for mdbook, the tool powering a lot of documentation in the Rust community, including The Rust Programming Language and The Rustc Dev Book.

As an example of what it looks like, I recently found a couple broken links in the documentation for Chalk. When the tool detects broken links in your markdown it’ll emit error messages that point you at the place the link is defined and explain what the issue is.

This tool has been around for a while and works quite well, so when I was fixing a bug the other day I decided it’s about time to extract the core logic into a standalone library that others can use.

## What Belongs in a Library?

When you start building a library it’s good to think about what problem the library is trying to solve. That way you know what features belong in the library and, more importantly, what doesn’t.

The linkcheck crate’s primary objective is to find links in a document and check that they point to something valid. There seem to be two concepts here:

• Scanner - some sort of function which can consume text and return a stream of links that are found.
• Validator - something which can take a batch of links and tell you whether they are valid or not

In the long run, it’d be nice to include scanners for most popular formats, however to keep things manageable I’m going to constrain this to plain text and markdown for now. I imagine HTML would also be a nice addition because it’ll let people check their websites, but I’ll leave that as an exercise for later.

As far as I can tell, there are only really two types of links,

• Local Files - a link to another file on disk
• Web Links - a URL for some resource on the internet

Validating web links should be rather easy, we can send a GET request to the appropriate website and our web client (probably reqwest) will let us know if we’ve got a dead link or not.

I thought I’d start with plain text because that’s easiest. We want to create some sort of iterator which yields all the bits of text that resemble a URL.

Originally I thought it’d just be a case of writing a regular expression and mapping the Matches iterator from the regex crate, but it turns out URLs aren’t that easy to work with.

After searching google for about 10 minutes and scanning through dozens of StackOverflow questions I wasn’t able to find an expression which would match all the types of URLs I expected while also avoiding punctuation like a trailing full stop or when a link is in parentheses, and detecting links don’t have a scheme (e.g. ./README.md instead of file:///README.md).

This reminds me of a popular quote…

Some people, when confronted with a problem, think “I know, I’ll use regular expressions." Now they have two problems.

Jamie Zawinski

Luckily for me, this problem has already been solved and the linkify crate is available on crates.io!

Looking through the source code, it seems like they’ve written a lot of manual code to take into account how URLs may be embedded in bodies of text. This mainly consists of scanning for certain “trigger characters” (: for a URL, @ for an email address) then backtracking to find the start of the item. There are also lots of tests to make sure only the desired text is detected as a match.

The end result means the implementation of our plaintext scanner is almost trivial:

// src/scanners/plaintext.rs

use crate::codespan::Span;

pub fn plaintext(src: &str) -> impl Iterator<Item = (&str, Span)> + '_ {
(
)
})
}


I also threw in tests for a couple examples:

// src/scanners/plaintext.rs

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
use super::*;

#[test]
fn detect_urls_in_some_text() {
let src = "hello http://localhost/ world. this is file://some/text.";
let should_be = vec![
("http://localhost/", Span::new(6, 23)),
("file://some/text", Span::new(39, 55)),
];

let got: Vec<_> = plaintext(src).collect();

assert_eq!(got, should_be);
}
}


For parsing markdown my go-to library is pulldown-cmark. This exposes an iterator-based API, yielding Events like “start of paragraph tag”, “end of inline code”, “horizontal rule”, and so on.

This API is pretty low level and you’ll need to do a lot of work yourself if you want to create some sort of semantic model (e.g. a DOM) of the document, but if you’re just wanting to scan through a document and extract specific bits like we are, it’s ideal.

The pulldown-cmark parser also provides an “offset” iterator who’s Item is a (Event<'a>, Range<usize>). This should give us enough information to provide developers with useful diagnostics.

My initial markdown scanner looked something like this:

// src/scanners/markdown.rs

pub fn markdown(src: &str) -> impl Iterator<Item = (String, Span)> + '_ {
Parser::new(src)
.into_offset_iter()
.filter_map(|(event, range)| match event {
| Event::Start(Tag::Image(_, dest, _)) => Some((
dest.to_string(),
Span::new(range.start as u32, range.end as u32),
)),
_ => None,
})
}


The chain of iterator combinators and match statement make the code look complicated, the idea itself is quite simple… Filter out everything but the start of Link and Image tags, then transform them to a tuple containing the link itself and its location in the source text.

The pulldown-cmark parser also lets you provide a callback that can will be triggered whenever it encounters a footnote-style link (e.g. [some text][link]) with no corresponding link definition (e.g. [link]: https://example.com). This is normally meant as a mechanism for fixing the broken reference, but we can use it to emit diagnostics.

The updated scanner:

// src/scanners/markdown.rs

use crate::codespan::Span;
use pulldown_cmark::{Event, Options, Parser, Tag};

pub fn markdown(src: &str) -> impl Iterator<Item = (String, Span)> + '_ {
}

src: &'a str,
) -> impl Iterator<Item = (String, Span)> + 'a
where
F: Fn(&str, &str) -> Option<(String, String)>,
{
src,
Options::ENABLE_FOOTNOTES,
)
.into_offset_iter()
.filter_map(|(event, range)| match event {
| Event::Start(Tag::Image(_, dest, _)) => Some((
dest.to_string(),
Span::new(range.start as u32, range.end as u32),
)),
_ => None,
})
}


By now you’ve probably identified a pattern with implementing scanners.

Basically,

1. Find a crate that already exists
2. let them do the hard work of parsing your document
3. do a bit of post-processing to extract just the bits we care about

The main reason we want to check links to other local files is for documentation tools like mdbook. This is where several markdown files exist in a directory tree, and they will be compiled to HTML that maintains the same tree structure.

### Constraints

It’s important to re-state this mdbook-specific aspect because it adds a couple interesting constraints to the problem…

1. You can write a link to a directory (e.g. /foo/) and the browser will fall back to a default path (e.g. /foo/index.html)
2. There is the concept of a “root directory” which the document will be served from, and any absolute links (i.e. a link starting with a /) should be relative to this directory
3. We want to control whether links can go outside the root directory (e.g. ../../../../etc/passwd) for security reasons and because these sorts of links make assumptions about the environment which may not always be true (e.g. the relative location of two repositories on disk)

These constraints are encapsulated in our Options type:

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

use std::{ffi::OsString, path::PathBuf};

pub struct Options {
root_directory: Option<PathBuf>,
default_file: OsString,
}

impl Options {
pub const DEFAULT_FILE: &'static str = "index.html";

pub fn new() -> Self {
Options {
root_directory: None,
default_file: OsString::from(Options::DEFAULT_FILE),
}
}
}


(The type also has several getters and setters, but they are largely irrelevant for our purposes)

The first big operation that we can do with Options is to “join” a directory and a link. This reduces to a current_dir.join(second) in the simplest case, but we need to do some fancy logic when the link is absolute.

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

impl Options {
fn join(
&self,
current_dir: &Path,
second: &Path,
) -> Result<PathBuf, Reason> {
if second.is_absolute() {
// if the path is absolute (i.e. has a leading slash) then it's
// meant to be relative to the root directory, not the current one
match self.root_directory() {
Some(root) => {
let mut buffer = root.to_path_buf();
// append everything except the root element
buffer.extend(second.iter().skip(1));
Ok(buffer)
},
// You really shouldn't provide links to absolute files on your
// system (e.g. "/home/michael/Documents/whatever" or
// "/etc/passwd").
//
// For one, it's extremely brittle and will probably only work
// on that computer, but more importantly it's also a vector
// for directory traversal attacks.
//
// Feel free to send a PR if you believe otherwise.
None => Err(Reason::TraversesParentDirectories),
}
} else {
Ok(current_dir.join(second))
}
}
}


The next big operation is path canonicalisation. This is where we convert the joined path to its canonical form, resolving symbolic links and ..s appropriately. As a side-effect of canonicalisation, the OS will also return a FileNotFound error if the item doesn’t exist.

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

impl Options {
fn canonicalize(&self, path: &Path) -> Result<PathBuf, Reason> {
let mut canonical = path.canonicalize()?;

if canonical.is_dir() {
canonical.push(&self.default_file);
// we need to canonicalize again because the default file may be a
// symlink, or not exist at all
canonical = canonical.canonicalize()?;
}

Ok(canonical)
}
}


We also need to do a quick sanity check to make sure links don’t escape the “root” directory unless explicitly allowed.

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

impl Options {
fn sanity_check(&self, path: &Path) -> Result<(), Reason> {
if let Some(root) = self.root_directory() {
{
return Err(Reason::TraversesParentDirectories);
}
}

Ok(())
}
}


Now we’ve encoded our constraints in the Options type, we can wrap all this code up into a single function. This function will take a “link” and tries to figure out which file is being linked to.

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

current_directory: &Path,
options: &Options,
) -> Result<PathBuf, Reason> {

let canonical = options.canonicalize(&joined)?;
options.sanity_check(&canonical)?;

// Note: canonicalizing also made sure the file exists
Ok(canonical)
}


As a side note, we use the thiserror crate to simplify the boilerplate around defining the reason that validation may fail, Reason. Our Reason type is just an enum of the different reasons that validation may fail.

// src/validation/mod.rs

#[derive(Debug, thiserror::Error)]
#[non_exhaustive]
pub enum Reason {
#[error("Linking outside of the book directory is forbidden")]
TraversesParentDirectories,
#[error("An OS-level error occurred")]
Io(#[from] std::io::Error),
#[error("The web client encountered an error")]
Web(#[from] reqwest::Error),
}

impl Reason {
pub fn file_not_found(&self) -> bool {
match self {
Reason::Io(e) => e.kind() == std::io::ErrorKind::NotFound,
_ => false,
}
}

pub fn timed_out(&self) -> bool {
match self {
Reason::Web(e) => e.is_timeout(),
_ => false,
}
}
}


### Wrapping It Up in a Check

The whole point of this endeavour is to have some sort of validation function which takes a link to a local file and makes sure it’s valid.

For this, I’m going to introduce the idea of a validator context. This is a collections of useful properties and callbacks to help guide the validation process.

At the moment we only need access to the file system validator’s Options, so the Context trait looks a little bare.

// src/validation/mod.rs

pub trait Context {
/// Options to use when checking a link on the filesystem.
fn filesystem_options(&self) -> &Options;
}


Now we need to wrap our resolve_link() in a check_filesystem() function which uses the Context

// src/validation/filesystem.rs

use crate::validation::Context;

/// Check whether a [Path] points to a valid file on disk.
///
/// If a fragment specifier is provided, this function will scan through the
/// linked document and check that the file contains the corresponding anchor
/// (e.g. markdown heading or HTML id).
pub fn check_filesystem<C>(
current_directory: &Path,
path: &Path,
fragment: Option<&str>,
ctx: &C,
) -> Result<(), Reason>
where
C: Context,
{
log::debug!(
"Checking \"{}\" in the context of \"{}\"",
path.display(),
current_directory.display()
);

current_directory,
path,
ctx.filesystem_options(),
)?;

log::debug!(
"\"{}\" resolved to \"{}\"",
path.display(),
resolved_location.display()
);

if let Some(fragment) = fragment {
// TODO: detect the file type and check the fragment exists
log::warn!(
"Not checking that the \"{}\" section exists in \"{}\" because fragment resolution isn't implemented",
fragment,
resolved_location.display(),
);
}

Ok(())
}


The code isn’t overly exciting, it boils down to a bunch of log statements and returns a () instead of PathBuf to indicate we don’t care about the result of a successful check.

Now we’ve reached the core part of our link checker, checking if a URL points to a valid resource on the internet.

The good news is that actually checking that a URL is valid is almost trivial. The reqwest crate provides an asynchronous HTTP client with a nice API, so checking the URL is as simple as sending a GET request.

// src/validation/web.rs

use reqwest::{Client, Url};

/// Send a GET request to a particular endpoint.
pub async fn get(
client: &Client,
url: &Url,
) -> Result<(), reqwest::Error> {
client
.get(url.clone())
.send()
.await?
.error_for_status()?;

Ok(())
}


Something to note is that we accept this extra_headers parameter. Sometimes you’ll need to send extra headers to particular endpoints (imagine needing to send Authorization: bearer some-token to access a page that requires logging in), so we’ll give the caller a way to do that.

### Caching

While sending a GET request to a particular URL is easy to do, going with just the naive version (for link in links { check(link) }) will make the link checking process incredibly slow.

What we want to do is avoid unnecessary trips over the network by reusing previous results, both from within the same run (e.g. a file links to the same URL twice) or from multiple runs (e.g. the last time link checking was done in CI).

We’ll need some sort of caching layer.

To mix things up a little I’m going to show you the final check_web() function and we can step through it bit by bit.

// src/validation/web.rs

/// Check whether a [Url] points to a valid resource on the internet.
pub async fn check_web<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C) -> Result<(), Reason>
where
C: Context,
{
log::debug!("Checking \"{}\" on the web", url);

log::debug!("The cache says \"{}\" is still valid", url);
return Ok(());
}

let result = get(ctx.client(), &url, ctx.url_specific_headers(&url)).await;

if let Some(fragment) = url.fragment() {
// TODO: check the fragment
log::warn!("Fragment checking isn't implemented, not checking if there is a \"{}\" header in \"{}\"", fragment, url);
}

let entry = CacheEntry::new(SystemTime::now(), result.is_ok());
update_cache(url, ctx, entry);

result.map_err(Reason::from)
}


The first interesting bit is the already_valid() check. This runs beforehand and lets us skip any further work if our cache says the link is already valid.

// src/validation/web.rs

fn already_valid<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C) -> bool
where
C: Context,
{
if let Some(cache) = ctx.cache() {
return cache.url_is_still_valid(url, ctx.cache_timeout());
}

false
}


What we do is check if the Context has a cache (for simplicity, some users may not care about caching) and then ask the cache to do a lookup, specifying how long a cache entry can be considered valid for.

The Cache itself isn’t anything special. It’s just a wrapper around a HashMap.

// src/validation/mod.rs

use reqwest::Url;
use std::{collections::HashMap, time::SystemTime};

pub struct Cache {
entries: HashMap<Url, CacheEntry>,
}

pub struct CacheEntry {
pub timestamp: SystemTime,
pub valid: bool,
}


The Cache::url_is_still_valid() method is a bit more complex because we need to deal with the fact that you can sometimes time travel when using SystemTime (e.g. because your computer’s clock changed between now and whenever the CacheEntry was added).


impl Cache {
pub fn url_is_still_valid(&self, url: &Url, timeout: Duration) -> bool {
if let Some(entry) = self.lookup(url) {
if entry.valid {
if let Ok(time_since_check_was_done) = entry.timestamp.elapsed()
{
return time_since_check_was_done < timeout;
}
}
}

false
}

pub fn lookup(&self, url: &Url) -> Option<&CacheEntry> {
self.entries.get(url)
}
}


Something to note is that this cache is deliberately conservative. It’ll only consider an entry to “still be valid” if it was previously valid and there have been no time-travelling shenanigans. We also need a timeout parameter to allow for cache invalidation.

To facilitate caching, the Context trait will need a couple more methods:

// src/validation/mod.rs

pub trait Context {
...

/// An optional cache that can be used to avoid unnecessary network
/// requests.
///
/// We need to use internal mutability here because validation is done
/// concurrently. This [MutexGuard] is guaranteed to be short lived (just
/// the duration of a [Cache::insert()] or [Cache::lookup()]), so it's
/// okay to use a [std::sync::Mutex] instead of [futures:🔒:Mutex].
fn cache(&self) -> Option<MutexGuard<Cache>> { None }

/// How long should a cached item be considered valid for before we need to
/// check again?
fn cache_timeout(&self) -> Duration {
// 24 hours should be a good default
Duration::from_secs(24 * 60 * 60)
}
}


Next up is a call to the get() function we wrote earlier.

// src/validation/web.rs

pub async fn check_web<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C) -> Result<(), Reason>
where
C: Context,
{
...

let result = get(ctx.client(), &url, ctx.url_specific_headers(&url)).await;

...
}


We want to reuse the same HTTP client if possible because we get nice things like connection pooling and the ability to set headers that’ll be sent with every request (e.g. User-Agent). We also need to ask the Context if there are any headers that need to be sent when checking this specific URL.

*sigh*… Okay, let’s add some more methods to the Context trait.

// src/validation/mod.rs

pub trait Context {
...

/// The HTTP client to use.
fn client(&self) -> &Client;

/// Get any extra headers that should be sent when checking this [Url].

}


You’ll also notice that we store the return value from get() in a result variable instead of using ? to bail if an error occurs. That’s necessary for the next bit… updating the cache.

// src/validation/web.rs

pub async fn check_web<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C) -> Result<(), Reason>
where
C: Context,
{
...

let entry = CacheEntry::new(SystemTime::now(), result.is_ok());
update_cache(url, ctx, entry);

...
}

fn update_cache<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C, entry: CacheEntry)
where
C: Context,
{
if let Some(mut cache) = ctx.cache() {
cache.insert(url.clone(), entry);
}
}


Updating the cache isn’t overly interesting, we just create a new CacheEntry and add it to the cache if the Context has one.

And finally we can return the result, converting the reqwest::Error from get() into a Reason.

// src/validation/web.rs

pub async fn check_web<C>(url: &Url, ctx: &C) -> Result<(), Reason>
where
C: Context,
{
...

result.map_err(Reason::from)
}


## Tying it All Together

Now we’ve implemented a couple validators it’s time to give users a more convenient interface. Ideally, I’d like to provide a single asynchronous validate() function that accepts a list of links and a Context, and returns a summary of all the checks.

This turned out to be kinda annoying because one of our validators is asynchronous and the other isn’t. It’s not made easier by needing to deal with all the different possible outcomes of link checking, including…

• valid - the check passed successfully
• invalid - the check failed for some Reason
• unknown link type - we can’t figure out which validator to use, and
• ignored - sometimes users will want to skip certain links (e.g. to skip false positives, or because the server on the other end is funny)

For reference, a Link is just a string containing the link itself, plus some information we can use to figure out which text it came from (e.g. to provide pretty error messages).

// src/lib.rs

/// A link to some other resource.
#[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq)]
pub href: String,
/// Where the [Link] lies in its source text.
pub span: Span,
/// Which document does this [Link] belong to?
pub file: FileId,
}


To figure out which validator to use, we’ll need to sort links into categories.

// src/lib.rs

use std::path::PathBuf;
use reqwest::Url;

enum Category {
/// A local file.
FileSystem {
path: PathBuf,
fragment: Option<String>,
},
/// A URL for something on the web.
Url(Url),
}


From my work with mdbook-linkcheck I know categorising can be kinda annoying, so let’s create a couple tests.

// src/lib.rs

#[test]
fn parse_into_categories() {
let inputs = vec![
(
"https://example.com/",
Some(Category::Url(
Url::parse("https://example.com/").unwrap(),
)),
),
(
Some(Category::FileSystem {
fragment: None,
}),
),
(
Some(Category::FileSystem {
fragment: None,
}),
),
(
Some(Category::FileSystem {
}),
),
];

for (src, should_be) in inputs {
let got = Category::categorise(src);
assert_eq!(got, should_be);
}
}


Luckily, reqwest::Url implements std::str::FromStr so we can just use some_string.parse() for the Url variant.

// src/lib.rs

impl Category {
fn categorise(src: &str) -> Option<Self> {
if let Ok(url) = src.parse() {
return Some(Category::Url(url));
}

...
}
}


If parsing it as a Category::Url fails it’s probably going to fall into the FileSystem category. We can’t reuse something like the reqwest::Url or http::Uri types because they both expect the URL/URI to have a schema so we’ll need to get creative.

Regardless of whether we check fragments for file system links or not, we’ll need to make sure we can handle links with fragments otherwise we’ll try to see if the ./README.md#license file exists when we actually meant ./README.md.

The first step in parsing file system links is to split it into path and fragment bits.

// src/lib.rs

impl Category {
fn categorise(src: &str) -> Option<Self> {
...

let (path, fragment) = match src.find("#") {
Some(hash) => {
let (path, rest) = src.split_at(hash);
(path, Some(String::from(&rest[1..])))
},
None => (src, None),
};

...
}
}


Something else to consider is that the path may be URL-encoded (e.g. because the file’s name contains a space). Because I’m lazy, instead of pulling in a crate for URL decoding I’m going to reuse the same machinery the http crate uses for parsing the path section of a URL… http::uri::PathAndQuery.

// src/lib.rs

impl Category {
fn categorise(src: &str) -> Option<Self> {
...

// as a sanity check we use the http crate's PathAndQuery type to make
// sure the path is decoded correctly
if let Ok(path_and_query) = path.parse::<PathAndQuery>() {
return Some(Category::FileSystem {
path: PathBuf::from(path_and_query.path()),
fragment,
});
}

...
}
}


And that should be enough to categorise a link.

Full code for Category::categorise().
impl Category {
fn categorise(src: &str) -> Option<Self> {
if let Ok(url) = src.parse() {
return Some(Category::Url(url));
}

let (path, fragment) = match src.find("#") {
Some(hash) => {
let (path, rest) = src.split_at(hash);
(path, Some(String::from(&rest[1..])))
},
None => (src, None),
};

// as a sanity check we use the http crate's PathAndQuery type to make
// sure the path is decoded correctly
if let Ok(path_and_query) = path.parse::<PathAndQuery>() {
return Some(Category::FileSystem {
path: PathBuf::from(path_and_query.path()),
fragment,
});
}

None
}
}


Now we need to write a function that will match on the Category and invoke the appropriate validator.

When a link fails validation we’ll tell the caller by returning the name of the failing link and why it failed (InvalidLink).

// src/validation/mod.rs

/// A [Link] and the [Reason] why it is invalid.
#[derive(Debug)]
/// Why is this link invalid?
pub reason: Reason,
}


I’m also going to need an intermediate type representing the different possible outcomes.

// src/validation/mod.rs

enum Outcome {
}


Now we can start writing our validate_one() function.

// src/validation/mod.rs

/// Try to validate a single link, deferring to the appropriate validator based
/// on the link's [Category].
async fn validate_one<C>(
current_directory: &Path,
ctx: &C,
) -> Outcome
where
C: Context,
{
unimplemented!()
}


Users need the ability to skip a link if desired, so let’s give Context a should_ignore() method and call it at the top of validate_one().

// src/validation/mod.rs

pub trait Context {
...

/// Should this [Link] be skipped?
}

async fn validate_one<C>(
current_directory: &Path,
ctx: &C,
) -> Outcome
where
C: Context,
{
}

...
}


And now comes the big ugly match statement for dispatching to the appropriate validator.

// src/validation/mod.rs

async fn validate_one<C>(
current_directory: &Path,
ctx: &C,
) -> Outcome
where
C: Context,
{
...

Some(Category::FileSystem { path, fragment }) => Outcome::from_result(
check_filesystem(
current_directory,
&path,
fragment.as_deref(),
ctx,
),
),
Some(Category::Url(url)) => {
},
}
}


The final step in creating a high-level validate() function is to actually write it.

We can implement a buffered fan-out, fan-in flow by leveraging [StreamExt::buffer_unordered()][buffer_unordered] adapter to run up to n validations concurrently, then use StreamExt::collect() to merge the results.

// src/validation/mod.rs

/// Validate several [Link]s relative to a particular directory.
pub fn validate<'a, L, C>(
current_directory: &'a Path,
ctx: &'a C,
) -> impl Future<Output = Outcomes> + 'a
where
L::IntoIter: 'a,
C: Context,
{
.buffer_unordered(ctx.concurrency())
.collect()
}


The function signature looks pretty gnarly because we’re wanting to accept anything which can be turned into an iterator that yields Links (e.g. a Vec<Link> or one of the scanner iterators), but other than that it’s rather straightforward.

1. Convert the synchronous iterator into a futures::Stream
2. Map each Link to an unstarted future which will validate that link
3. Make sure we poll up to ctx.concurrency() futures to completion concurrently with buffer_unordered()
4. Collect the results into one container

We have almost everything we need, too. The only necessary additions are some sort of bucket for Outcomes (called Outcomes), and a way for Context to control how many validations are polled to completion at a time.

// src/validation/mod.rs

pub trait Context {
...

/// How many items should we check at a time?
fn concurrency(&self) -> usize { 64 }
}

/// The result of validating a batch of [Link]s.
#[derive(Debug, Default)]
pub struct Outcomes {
/// Items that were explicitly ignored by the [Context].
/// Links which we weren't able to identify a suitable validator for.
}

impl Extend<Outcome> for Outcomes {
fn extend<T: IntoIterator<Item = Outcome>>(&mut self, items: T) {
for outcome in items {
match outcome {
Outcome::Valid(v) => self.valid.push(v),
Outcome::Invalid(i) => self.invalid.push(i),
Outcome::Ignored(i) => self.ignored.push(i),
Outcome::UnknownCategory(u) => self.unknown_category.push(u),
}
}
}
}


And yeah, that’s all there is to it. Pretty easy, huh?

## Conclusions

This took a bit longer than I expected to walk through, but hopefully you’ve now got a good idea of how the linkcheck` crate works 🙂

Overall it wasn’t too difficult to implement, although it took a couple iterations until I found a way to merge the different validators that worked… My first attempt at integrating synchronous and asynchronous validators, all of which have their own sets of inputs and expectations, led to some rather ugly code.

It kinda reminds me of an article called “What Colour is Your Function?" by Bob Nystrom

Bob makes a good case that having a sync/async split in your language (like Rust, Python, or Node) can lead to poor ergonomics and difficulty reusing code. He also points out that it’s possible to have both a single “mode” of execution and all the nice things that come along with async code. Go’s green threading (“goroutines”) are a really good example of this.