# Words Are Hard - An Essay on Communicating With Non-Programmers

There’s a well-known saying about the hard problems in computer science, of which I think this is my favourite variant,

I’ve been writing software long enough to be burned by all three at some point, but as someone working in a small business who represents the software side of our product and is constantly rubbing shoulders with non-programmers, I believe the ability to correctly communicate an idea or concept in a way that others can understand (i.e. to name things) is by far the most important.

It’s also really hard.

## Techno-Babble

Like all industries, programmers have developed their own jargon to allow the concise communication of a concept to others.

This jargon is important. If a co-worker and I are trying to choose between two different algorithms to solve a particular problem we might say that “option A is O(n^2) with minimal up-front overhead, while option B is amortised to O(n log n) with a large setup cost”.

This single sentence says a lot about which scenarios an algorithm should be used for and how they are implemented under the hood,

• Option A is great for situations where the number of inputs is small
• Option B is great when working with really large inputs, where the large setup cost will be compensated for by more efficient runtime
• If you’re going to be using this algorithm in a loop, you should prefer option A to avoid the expensive setup code
• We may be able to amortise option B’s setup cost with caching
• Option A probably compares each input with every other input (e.g. for x in inputs { for y in inputs { if some_condition(x, y) { ... }}})
• Option B probably constructs a tree at the start then does a linear search followed by a lookup into this tree

You can see how we’ve been able to convey paragraphs of information with a handful of words just by employing the correct language.

However, if you are in a meeting with people outside of the programming world (e.g. mechanical or electrical engineers, managers, marketing people) using this technical jargon is a great way to ostracise and confuse people, and adds almost no value to the conversation.

This is what I’m referring to as techno-babble.

I’m going to be brutal here, a lot of the time these details just aren’t relevant to people from other fields and they really don’t care.

For example, say you’re explaining an awesome new feature which will find the shortest path from A to B by generating a navmesh and applying the A* pathfinding algorithm.

Don’t describing it like I did in the last sentence, say something like “we figure out a bunch of possible paths then use clever algorithms employed in the games industry to find the best overall route”.

It doesn’t matter that we’re using A* here (as opposed to Dijkstra or a breadth-first search), or that A* is used for more than telling an NPC how to move around the game world. The other person just cares that you can find a good path from A to B and that we’re using reliable tools already in use in other areas.

I’ve also seen more senior programmers employ techno-babble as a power play to show their incredible intelligence and impose their superiority over others, and this really rubs me the wrong way.

Now don’t get me wrong, sometimes there are situations where people who know just enough to be dangerous will say “that’s really complex, why can’t you just do X?" and you do need to let them know that you are the expert here and they don’t really know what they’re talking about… But there’s still a right way and a wrong way of going about that.

Don’t try to use techno-babble to satisfy your ego, it ostracises people and gives us a bad name.

## Be Respectful

That segues nicely into the next point… Don’t forget to be respectful.

A lot of the people I work with are really intelligent and experts in their own fields, but they don’t necessarily have the same knowledge and experience with building information systems.

It’s often necessary to simplify things (e.g. when trying to explain a tricky problem you’re having), but try not to be condescending.

That software engineer I mentioned earlier (power play guy) would often reply with “it’s…complicated” when asked by a “normal” person how a particular feature works, and then leave it there. As if the code was so clever someone who isn’t a programmer with 20 years experience would have no chance of understanding.

Don’t be that guy.

A better response is to say, “Okay I’m simplifying a bit here, but the idea is we first do X, then do Y, and finally do Z. There are a dozen subtle edge cases you need to keep in mind (maybe explain one or two of them) but that’s the general gist”. The people you’re working with are smart, as long as you don’t throw around techno-babble they’re more than capable of understanding you.

Another really useful technique is to use a non-programmer as a sounding board, kinda like a human rubber ducky. If you’re trying to come up with a solution to something, explain the rough problem to them and how you’d like to solve it, then ask if they can think of a better way of doing things.

Our company works in the CNC industry and for things that have some connection to the real world (e.g. say you’re trying to implement cut width compensation) engineers are really good at analysing problems based in physics or geometry.

## Personify, Exaggerate, and Use Analogies

People are social creatures. We’re hard-wired to understand relationships between people and love to use analogies to relate foreign concepts to something we already understand. When you’re talking to someone you can take advantage of this to make complex topics easier to understand.

Say your company has an online purchasing system and a marketing person wants to know how we go from the online checkout to getting a parcel at the door so they can answer customer questions better. I might say something like this:

Pretend there’s a customer named Charlie who wants to buy a dozen fidget spinners. He goes to www.example.com, adds the fidget spinners to his cart then hits “checkout” (most people have used online shopping before so you can gloss over how a cart and checkout work).

From there, Charlie’s computer sends the order to Sam (the web server) who checks with Debbie (the database) to make sure there’s enough stock to fulfil the order. Once Debbie gives the okay, Sam lets Charlie know the purchase was successful and gives him a receipt (possibly also sending an invoice via email).

There’s also a guy out the back (let’s call him Fred) who’s constantly asking Debbie if there have been any new orders. If so, Fred lets a real human know so they can grab the items from their shelf and hand them to Mary in the mail room (Mary is a real person, computers can’t hold fidget spinners silly) to be sent to Charlie via snail mail.

Sam and Rebecca (the recommendation engine) are in cahoots, so whenever an order is made Sam will let Rebecca know so she can use Artificial Intelligence and black magic to recommend other products to Charlie.

This all sounds rather comical and the example is more than a bit contrived, but I can guarantee it’s going to be more approachable than drawing up a big network diagram and using opaque words like “web server”, “Event-Driven Architecture”, or “Apache Kafka” (see the section on techno-babble).

As another example, if you’re trying to describe how a pathfinding algorithm works to a layperson, you don’t say “lines we’ve already visited are weighted higher”, you say “the algorithm really doesn’t want to go over lines it’s already visited”.

It’s subtle, but personifying the pathfinding algorithm by saying it “really wants to do X” and will “try really hard to avoid Y” often helps people to just Get It.

## Draw Pretty Pictures

It sounds cliché, but sometimes a picture really does paint a thousand words.

A couple months back I was doing a radio course and a lady next to me was having trouble remembering which buttons to press to navigate around the menus on this little 16x2 LCD display.

I asked if she’d like me to draw a map.

She thought I was being a smart ass and making fun of her.

I wasn’t.

Instead, I found a bit of scrap paper and together we drew up something like this:

A programmer would immediately recognise this “map” for what it is, a State Machine Diagram. Unbeknownst to them, I had just explained a fundamental technique in computer science and how this radio’s UI was coded under the hood.

But the lady (and the rest of the group by this stage) didn’t care. This was a map that they could use to navigate the UI.

There’s something oddly satisfying about finding a way to make a tricky concept approachable to someone from another field. Especially when they’re able to identify that the map actually has a bug in it and you need to press and hold cancel to get back to the Idle state, because pressing cancel normally takes you back to the Main Menu.

On my desk I have a book of un-lined paper. Normally it’s used for my weekly to-do list or scratch paper when I’m trying to work something out, but it frequently doubles as an explanation aid. Being able to sketch things out as you are talking with someone helps make sure everyone is on the same page (pun intended) and that you are both meaning the same thing when you use a particular name.

## I Made $FEATURE 10x Faster Say you’ve made some performance tweaks and now a particular piece of code is a lot faster. How do you express this to someone who isn’t a coder or can’t see the source code? On one hand, if someone asks what you’ve been up to over the last week you could tell them the truth and say “I added caching to lookup_something() to speed up common lookups and switched the algorithm in detect_collisions() from O(n^2) to O(n log n) but there’s a good chance that’ll mean absolutely nothing to them (see techno-babble). You could also say “miscellaneous performance tweaks”, but that sounds like a cop out and your manager will start questioning why they bother employing you. Something I’ve heard a lot is people saying “I’ve made$FEATURE 10x faster” (or some other arbitrary number) and leave it at that. This usually evokes a large amount of congratulation from non-coders, however it tends to be a bit… misleading.

A lot of the time what’s actually happened is you improved the performance of a couple functions, but unless those functions were legitimate bottlenecks there’s a good chance users won’t see any difference.

It also begs the question, what did you do to improve performance by a factor of 10? That’s an oddly specific number, did your original code do the same thing multiple times? Or maybe your original code was actually polling (say we’re reading from hardware or some 3rd party site) 10x slower than it should have? Even that makes me question your abilities because you either guessed (poorly) the original poll rate or you’re still leaving performance on the table by using polling instead of a more efficient event-based system.

Instead, I think we should be trying to find a middle ground between accuracy and understandability. If you make a change which improves the algorithmic complexity of a bit of code (e.g. detect_collisions() goes from O(n^2) to (O(n log n)) you can say “feature X should now scale to larger inputs without run times blowing out like it used to”.

## It’s Okay to Say “I Don’t Know”…

… but you should follow it up with something like “but if you give me 5 minutes I’ll be able to tell you”.

This is something I see a lot. People are afraid to show their ignorance so they’d rather struggle in silence or make something up.

For example, if your manager came to you saying “a customer has asked for feature X, is it possible? and if so, how long will it take to implement?".

9 times out of 10 the honest answer is “I don’t know”, but that doesn’t really help the manager decide when to implement the feature. They’ve come to you because you are the expert in the relevant area and the best equipped to provide an answer.

Some people will prefer to guess or mislead (e.g. by saying “yeah we can do in 2 or 3 weeks”), but that doesn’t normally work out in the long run. At best your time estimate may be off and the task overruns by a couple weeks, at worst you could sink months into implementing the feature only to find it’s impossible to do with the current application architecture.

That’s a great way to lose people’s respect.

If you were to reply with something like “I’m not sure, but let me get back to you in 5-10 minutes and I’ll have an answer” this shows a couple things:

• You are willing to admit not knowing everything (i.e. not egotistical)
• You take pride in your word and don’t want to give an inaccurate answer
• You respect the person enough to spend some of your time helping answer their question
• You’re a nice guy 🙂

(It also buys you enough time to figure things out for yourself without being put on the spot)

This reminds me of an old parable,

Other people don’t (usually) expect you to know everything about your field, instead they expect you to have the tools to research the question and translate the answer into terms they’ll be able to understand.

The Graybeard engineer retired and a few weeks later the Big Machine broke down, which was essential to the company’s revenue. The Manager couldn’t get the machine to work again so the company called in Graybeard as an independent consultant.

Graybeard agrees. He walks into the factory, takes a look at the Big Machine, grabs a sledge hammer, and whacks the machine once whereupon the machine starts right up. Graybeard leaves and the company is making money again.

The next day Manager receives a bill from Graybeard for $5,000. Manager is furious at the price and refuses to pay. Graybeard assures him that it’s a fair price. Manager retorts that if it’s a fair price Graybeard won’t mind itemizing the bill. Graybeard agrees that this is a fair request and complies. The new, itemized bill reads…. Hammer:$5

Knowing where to hit the machine with hammer: \$4995

Anyone is able to type questions into Google, the difference is a Software Engineer knows which keywords to use and how to interpret the results.

## Conclusions

This was a different take to my usual code-heavy articles, but sometimes it’s useful to remember there’s more to this world than just writing code.

Programmers are (not without reason) stereotyped as having poor communication and social skills. A big part of our job requires effectively communicating with others, and hopefully you can gain something from my experiences.

Some people may think of the topics I’ve mentioned as office politics and manipulating other people’s view of you, and my response to that is,

well… yeah. But isn’t that the case with most inter-person interactions?

I’m just using psychology to make it easier for coders and non-coders to talk a common language and work together for the betterment of a common goal.