# WebAssembly as a Platform for Abstraction

In a project I’ve been playing around with recently, we’ve encountered the dilemma where you want to make it easy for users to write their own application logic using the system but at the same time want to keep that logic decoupled from the implementation details of whatever platform the application is running on.

If you’ve been programming for any amount of time your immediate reaction is probably “why bother mentioning this, doesn’t it just fall out of good library design?", and normally I would totally agree with you, except I forgot to mention a couple of important details…

1. People need to be able to upload new code while the system is still running
2. This application will be interacting with the real world (think robots and automation), and we really don’t want a crash in user-provided code to make the entire system stop responding

The normal solution for the first point is to use some sort of plugin architecture, however using something like Dynamic Loading doesn’t solve the second point and the large amounts of unsafe code needed can arguably make the situation worse. For that we’ll need some sort of sandboxing mechanism.

Introducing…

Web Assembly has gained a lot of traction over the last couple of years as a way to write code in any language and run it in the browser, but it can be used for so much more.

There are already several general-purpose runtimes available for running Wasm in a Rust program. These runtimes give you a virtual machine which can run arbitrary code, and the only way this code can interact with the outside world is via the functions you explicitly give it access to.

## Getting Started

I’ve chosen to use the wasmer crate because its interface seems to be the most amenable to embedding.

Let’s start things off by creating a new crate for the project.

$cargo new --lib wasm Created library wasm package  We’ll also want to add the wasmer-runtime as a dependency. $ cd wasm && cargo add wasmer-runtime
Updating 'https://github.com/rust-lang/crates.io-index' index


Let’s start off by creating a wrapper around an instantiated Wasm module.

// src/lib.rs

use wasmer_runtime::error::Error as WasmerError;

/// A user-provided program loaded into memory.
pub struct Program {
instance: wasmer_runtime::Instance,
}

impl Program {
pub fn load(wasm: &[u8]) -> Result<Self, WasmerError> {
let imports = wasmer_runtime::imports!();
let instance = wasmer_runtime::instantiate(wasm, &imports)?;

Ok(Program { instance })
}
}


We just want to get things running, so for now we won’t bother exposing any host functions to the user-provided program. Hence the empty imports!() call.

Motion control systems typically work by rapidly polling each task in turn, so let’s give Program a poll() method which will call the Wasm module’s poll() function.

// src/lib.rs

impl Program {
...

pub fn poll(&mut self) -> Result<(), WasmerError> {
self.instance.call("poll", &[])?;

Ok(())
}
}


Technically we now have everything necessary to load and poll a program, so let’s give it a shot. We’ll need to create an executable and our project could do with an example showing how to run a program, so we should be able to kill two birds with one stone.

// examples/basic-runtime.rs

use wasm::Program;
use std::{env, error::Error};

fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
let wasm_file = match env::args().skip(1).next() {
Some(filename) => filename,
None => panic!("Usage: basic-runtime <wasm-file>"),
};

loop {
program.poll()?;
}
}


We’ll also need a dummy program that can be compiled to Wasm and fed to our basic-runtime example.

// example-program.rs

#[no_mangle]
pub extern "C" fn poll() {}


Now we should be able to compile the example-program.rs to Wasm and run it.

$rustc example-program.rs --target wasm32-unknown-unknown --crate-type cdylib$ ls
Cargo.toml  example-program.rs  example_program.wasm  examples  src
$cargo run --example basic-runtime -- example_program.wasm Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.21s Running /home/michael/Documents/wasm/target/debug/examples/basic-runtime example_program.wasm ^C  Well that was… anticlimatic. The poll() function in example-program.rs doesn’t actually do anything, so we just created an expensive busy loop. Let’s give the Wasm code a way to print messages to the screen. The way this is done is via that imports!() macro from earlier, basically any function defined inside imports!() is accessible to the Wasm code. wasmer imposes some strict constraints on the functions which may be exposed to Wasm, restricting arguments and return values to i32, i64, f32, f64, and pointers. Functions may optionally accept a &mut wasmer_runtime::Ctx as the first argument, this is useful for interacting with the runtime (e.g. to access Wasm memory or call a function) or accessing contextual information attached to the Instance. The code itself is rather straightforward: // src/lib.rs impl Program { pub fn load(wasm: &[u8]) -> Result<Self, WasmerError> { let imports = wasmer_runtime::imports! { "env" => { "print" => wasmer_runtime::func!(print), }, }; let instance = wasmer_runtime::instantiate(wasm, &imports)?; Ok(Program { instance }) } pub fn poll(&mut self) -> Result<(), WasmerError> { self.instance.call("poll", &[])?; Ok(()) } } /// Print the provided message to the screen. /// /// Returns -1 if the operation failed. fn print(ctx: &mut Ctx, msg: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, length: u32) -> i32 { match msg.get_utf8_string(ctx.memory(0), length) { Some(msg) => { print!("{}", msg); 0 }, None => -1, } }  Now we can update the example-program.rs file to print "Polling" every time it gets called. // example-program.rs extern "C" { /// Print a message to the screen. /// /// Returns -1 if the operation fails. fn print(msg: *const u8, length: u32) -> i32; } #[no_mangle] pub extern "C" fn poll() { let msg = "Polling\n"; unsafe { print(msg.as_bytes().as_ptr(), msg.len() as u32); } }  We should now be able to recompile and run the program again. $ rustc example-program.rs --target wasm32-unknown-unknown --crate-type cdylib
$cargo run --example basic-runtime -- example_program.wasm Polling Polling Polling Polling Polling ^C  Just for fun, let’s compile this in release mode and see how much overhead going through wasmer adds. $ cargo build --release --example basic-runtime
$time ../target/release/examples/basic-runtime ./example_program.wasm > out.txt ^C ../target/release/examples/basic-runtime ./example_program.wasm > out.txt 1.09s user 2.79s system 99% cpu 3.879 total$ wc out.txt
180668  180668 1445344 out.txt


It looks like we wrote 1,445,344 bytes in 3.879 seconds for a throughput of approximately 372.6 KB/sec. For comparison, the equivalent pure Rust program (fn main() { loop { println!("Polling"); } }) printed 2,240,816 bytes in 4.225 for a throughput of 530.4 KB/sec.

That’s pretty good!

## Declaring the Rest of the Platform Interface

Okay, so we know how to expose functions to the Wasm code to let it interact with the rest of the environment. Now the next task is look at the problem we’re trying to solve, and provide functions which will help solve it.

While this section will be fairly specific to my use case (creating some sort of programmable logic controller that people can upload code to), it should be fairly easy to adapt to suit your application.

In our system, there are a handful of ways a program can interact with the outside world:

• Log a message so it can be printed to some sort of debug window
• Read an input from some memory-mapped IO
• Write an output to some memory-mapped IO
• Get the current time
• Read and write named global variables

The easiest way to declare which functions will be exposed by the runtime (“intrinsics”) is with a normal C header file. This may seem a bit strange for a Rust project, but just hear me out…

1. A header file decouples the declaration of a function from its implementation.
2. You can use bindgen to generate the corresponding Rust declarations
3. Using C header files enables people to write code for our application in other languages (mainly C and C++)

First off, it’s a good idea to explain how we’ll be handling fallible operations. We’ll be returning error codes, where anything other than WASM_SUCCESS indicates an error.

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* The various error codes used by this library.
*
* Every non-trivial function should return a wasm_result_t to indicate
* whether it executed successfully.
*/
enum wasm_result_t {
// The operation was successful.
WASM_SUCCESS = 0,
// An unspecified error occurred.
WASM_GENERIC_ERROR = 1,
// Tried to access an input/output address which is out of bounds.
// Tried to read an unknown variable.
WASM_UNKNOWN_VARIABLE = 3,
// Tried to read/write a variable using the wrong type (e.g. you tried to
// write a boolean to an integer variable).
};


Instead of our original print() function, let’s create a fully-fledged logger.

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* The log levels used with wasm_log().
*/
enum wasm_log_level {
LOG_ERROR = 0,
LOG_WARN = 1,
LOG_INFO = 2,
LOG_DEBUG = 3,
LOG_TRACE = 4,
};

/**
* Log a message at the specified level, including information about the file
* and line the message was logged from.
*/
int wasm_log(int level, const char *file, int file_len, int line,
const char *message, int message_len);


We should also make a helper macro so people don’t constantly need to enter in the filename and line number.

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* Convenience macro for logging a message.
*/
#define LOG(level, message) wasm_log(level, __FILE__, strlen(__FILE__), __LINE__, message, strlen(message))


Next we’ll give users a way to read input and write output.

The runtime will make sure inputs are copied to a section of memory before calling poll() and outputs will sit in another section of memory and be synchronised with the real world after poll() completes. This is somewhat similar to how Memory-mapped IO works in embedded systems, or the Process Image on a PLC.

It’s not uncommon to have batches of 16 digital outputs or read from a 24-bit analogue sensor, so let’s allow users to read/write in batches instead of one bit/byte at a time.

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* Read from an input from memory-mapped IO.
*/

/**
* Write to an output using memory-mapped IO.
*/
int wasm_write_output(uint32_t address, const char *data, int data_len);


Measuring the time should be fairly straightforward. The user doesn’t necessarily care about the actual time (plus timezones are complicated!) so the we’ll provide a way to get the number of seconds and nanoseconds since an arbitrary point in time (probably when the runtime started) and they can use that to see how much time has passed.

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* Get a measurement of a monotonically nondecreasing clock.
*
* The absolute numbers don't necessarily mean anything, the difference
* between two measurements can be used to tell how much time has passed.
*/
int wasm_current_time(uint64_t *secs, uint32_t *nanos);


Next we need a way for different programs to communicate. For this, the runtime will maintain a table of “global variables” which can either be booleans, integers, or floating-point numbers (bool, i32, and f64 respectively).

// src/intrinsics.h

/**
* Read a globally defined boolean variable.
*
* Reading an unknown variable or trying to access a variable using the wrong
* type will result in an error.
*/
int wasm_variable_read_boolean(const char *name, int name_len, bool *value);
int wasm_variable_read_double(const char *name, int name_len, double *value);
int wasm_variable_read_int(const char *name, int name_len, int32_t *value);

/**
* Write to a globally defined boolean variable.
*
* This may fail if the variable already exists and has a different type.
*/
int wasm_variable_write_boolean(const char *name, int name_len, bool value);
int wasm_variable_write_double(const char *name, int name_len, double value);
int wasm_variable_write_int(const char *name, int name_len, int32_t value);


Add in a couple #includes and a header guard, and we should now have a proper definition of the functionality exposed by the runtime.

## Dependency Injection

We now have a fairly solid interface that can be used by Wasm code, but it’d be really nice if we didn’t hard-code the implementation for each function. Luckily the Ctx passed to our functions by wasmer allows you to attach a pointer to arbitrary data (*mut c_void) via Ctx::data.

The normal way this is done is using Dependency Injection. Accept a generic Environment object in the poll() method then set Ctx::data to point to this Environment object while poll() is running.

First we’re going to need an error type and a way to work with global variables that may have different types.

// src/lib.rs

#[derive(Debug)]
pub enum Error {
UnknownVariable,
Other(Box<dyn std::error::Error>),
}

#[derive(Debug, Copy, Clone, PartialEq)]
pub enum Value {
Bool(bool),
Integer(i32),
Float(f64),
}


Now we can define the Environment trait. It’s essentially the Rust version of our intrinsics.h, so its definition shouldn’t be too surprising.

// src/lib.rs

pub trait Environment {
fn elapsed(&self) -> Result<Duration, Error>;

&self,
buffer: &mut [u8],
) -> Result<(), Error>;

fn write_output(
&mut self,
buffer: &[u8],
) -> Result<(), Error>;

fn log(&self, record: &Record) -> Result<(), Error>;

fn get_variable(&self, name: &str) -> Result<Value, Error>;

fn set_variable(&mut self, name: &str, value: Value) -> Result<(), Error>;
}


The next thing we need to do is use the data: *mut c_void field on Ctx to make sure each host function gets a reference to the current Environment.

This can be tricky because we’re interacting with a lot of unsafe code, in particular:

• We can’t make the poll() function generic over any type E: Environment because then when Ctx::data is read by our functions, they won’t know which type of *mut E to cast it to. The easiest way around this is to use dynamic dispatch (i.e. &mut dyn Environment)
• You can’t cast a fat pointer (&mut dyn Environment) to a thin pointer (*mut c_void) so we need a second level of indirection
• The item pointed to by Ctx::data (our Environment object) is only guaranteed to stay valid for the duration of poll() so we need to make sure it gets cleared before returning
• Code that we call may panic!() and we need to make sure Ctx::data is cleared no matter what, otherwise we’ll be leaving a dangling pointer behind and future calls may try to use it

To solve the first two problems we’ll introduce an intermediate State object which can be placed on the stack.

// src/lib.rs

/// Temporary state passed to each host function via [Ctx::data].
struct State<'a> {
env: &'a mut dyn Environment,
}


From here, the naive implementation for poll() would look something like this:

// src/lib.rs

impl Program {
...

pub fn poll(&mut self, env: &mut dyn Environment) -> Result<(), Error> {
let mut state = State { env };
self.instance.context_mut().data = &mut state as *mut State as *mut c_void;

self.instance.call("poll", &[])?;

Ok(())
}
}


And yes, while it does correctly thread our &mut dyn Environment through to the instance-global context data, we’ve completely ignored the last two points; preventing our temporary state pointer from dangling, even if wasmer panics.

The normal way to implement this is by putting self.instance.call("poll", &[]) inside a closure, then using a helper function to

1. Do some setup
2. Call the closure from std::panic::catch_unwind()
3. Do safety-critical cleanup, then
4. Resume panicking
// src/lib.rs

impl Program {
...

pub fn poll(&mut self, env: &mut dyn Environment) -> Result<(), Error> {
self.with_environment_context(env, |instance| {
instance.call("poll", &[])?;
Ok(())
})
}

fn with_environment_context<F, T>(
&mut self,
env: &mut dyn Environment,
func: F,
) -> Result<T, Error>
where
F: FnOnce(&Instance) -> Result<T, Error>,
{
let mut state = State { env };
let instance = &mut self.instance;

// point the data pointer at our temporary state.
instance.context_mut().data = &mut state as *mut State<'_> as *mut _;
// we can't use the old state variable any more (we'd have aliased
// pointers) so deliberately shadow it
#[allow(unused_variables)]
let state = ();

// execute the callback. We need to catch panics so we can clear the
// data pointer no matter what. Using AssertUnwindSafe is
// correct here because we'll continue panicking once the data
// pointer is cleared
let got = panic::catch_unwind(AssertUnwindSafe(|| func(instance)));

// make sure the context data pointer is cleared. We don't need to drop
// anything because it was just a &mut State
instance.context_mut().data = ptr::null_mut();

match got {
Ok(value) => value,
Err(e) => panic::resume_unwind(e),
}
}
}


We can now start creating our host functions.

First up, let’s implement wasm_current_time(). The general strategy is:

1. Get a pointer to our State
2. Call the corresponding method on the &mut dyn Environment
3. Error out if something went wrong
4. Copy the result into Wasm memory
// src/lib.rs

const WASM_SUCCESS: i32 = 0;
const WASM_GENERIC_ERROR: i32 = 1;

fn wasm_current_time(
ctx: &mut Ctx,
secs: WasmPtr<u64>,
nanos: WasmPtr<u32>,
) -> i32 {
// the data pointer should have been set by with_environment_context()
if ctx.data.is_null() {
return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR;
}

let elapsed = unsafe {
// the data pointer was set, we can assume it points to a valid State
let state = &mut *(ctx.data as *mut State);

// and now we can call
match state.env.elapsed() {
Ok(duration) => duration,
Err(e) => {
log::error!("Unable to get the elapsed time: {}", e);
return e.code();
},
}
};

let memory = ctx.memory(0);
// the verbose equivalent of a null check and *secs = elapsed.as_secs()
match secs.deref(memory) {
Some(cell) => cell.set(elapsed.as_secs()),
None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR,
}
match nanos.deref(memory) {
Some(cell) => cell.set(elapsed.subsec_nanos()),
None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR,
}

WASM_SUCCESS
}


This part is up to you, but you can reduce a lot of the boilerplate around this with a couple simple macros.

For example, instead of manually calling deref() on a WasmPtr<T> and setting the &Cell<T> we could define a wasm_deref!() macro like so:

// src/lib.rs

macro_rules! wasm_deref {
(with $ctx:expr, *$ptr:ident = $value:expr) => { match$ptr.deref($ctx.memory(0)) { Some(cell) => cell.set($value),
None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR,
}
};
}


This reduces the bottom half of wasm_current_time() to

// src/lib.rs

fn wasm_current_time(
ctx: &mut Ctx,
secs: WasmPtr<u64>,
nanos: WasmPtr<u32>,
) -> i32 {
...

wasm_deref!(with ctx, *secs = elapsed.as_secs());
wasm_deref!(with ctx, *nanos = elapsed.subsec_nanos());

WASM_SUCCESS
}


We can replace the error handling around calling env.elapsed() with another macro. While we’re at it, we should also iterate over each cause in an error and print a “backtrace”.

// src/lib.rs

impl Error {
fn code(&self) -> i32 {
match self {
Error::UnknownVariable => WASM_UNKNOWN_VARIABLE,
_ => WASM_GENERIC_ERROR,
}
}
}

/// Convenience macro for executing a method using the [Environment] pointer
/// attached to [Ctx::data].
///
/// # Safety
///
/// This assumes the [Ctx] was set up correctly using
/// [Program::with_environment_context()].
macro_rules! try_with_env {
($ctx:expr,$method:ident ( $($arg:expr),* ), $failure_msg:expr) => {{ // the data pointer should have been set by with_environment_context() if$ctx.data.is_null() {
return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR;
}

let state = &mut *($ctx.data as *mut State); // call the method using the provided arguments match state.env.$method( $($arg ),* ) {
// happy path
Ok(value) => value,
Err(e) => {
// log the original error using the failure_msg
log::error!(concat!($failure_msg, ": {}"), e); // then iterate through the causes and log those too let mut cause = std::error::Error::source(&e); while let Some(inner) = cause { log::error!("Caused by: {}", inner); cause = inner.source(); } // the operation failed, return the corresponding error code return e.code(); } } }}; }  With those two changes, our wasm_current_time() function now spends a lot more time doing “interesting” things and isn’t as cluttered by error-handling. // src/lib.rs fn wasm_current_time( ctx: &mut Ctx, secs: WasmPtr<u64>, nanos: WasmPtr<u32>, ) -> i32 { let elapsed = unsafe { try_with_env!(ctx, elapsed(), "Unable to calculate the elapsed time") }; wasm_deref!(with ctx, *secs = elapsed.as_secs()); wasm_deref!(with ctx, *nanos = elapsed.subsec_nanos()); WASM_SUCCESS }  Next we’ll wire up the wasm_log function. The plan is to massage the provided information into a form Rust’s log crate can handle, then let the Environment pass the resulting LogRecord through to its logger. // src/lib.rs fn wasm_log( ctx: &mut Ctx, level: i32, file: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, file_len: i32, line: i32, message: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, message_len: i32, ) -> i32 { // Note: We can't directly accept the Level enum here because out-of-range // enum variants are UB let level = match level { LOG_ERROR => Level::Error, LOG_WARN => Level::Warn, LOG_INFO => Level::Info, LOG_DEBUG => Level::Debug, LOG_TRACE => Level::Trace, _ => Level::Debug, }; let filename = file.get_utf8_string(ctx.memory(0), file_len as u32); let message = message .get_utf8_string(ctx.memory(0), message_len as u32) .unwrap_or_default(); gt unsafe { try_with_env!( ctx, // unfortunately constructing a log record and using it needs to be // in a single statement because lifetimes // https://users.rust-lang.org/t/using-format-args-and-log-builder/22695 log(&Record::builder() .level(level) .file(filename.as_deref()) .line(Some(line as u32)) .args(format_args!("{}", message)) .build()), "Logging failed" ); } WASM_SUCCESS }  Implementing the other host functions follows the same steps. After writing a couple of these function “trampolines”, it goes from being a scary unsafe task to a mechanical job of translating arguments and error values. A big wall of code that translates arguments and error values. // src/lib.rs impl TryFrom<Value> for bool { type Error = Error; fn try_from(other: Value) -> Result<bool, Self::Error> { match other { Value::Bool(b) => Ok(b), _ => Err(Error::BadVariableType), } } } impl TryFrom<Value> for i32 { type Error = Error; fn try_from(other: Value) -> Result<i32, Self::Error> { match other { Value::Integer(i) => Ok(i), _ => Err(Error::BadVariableType), } } } impl TryFrom<Value> for f64 { type Error = Error; fn try_from(other: Value) -> Result<f64, Self::Error> { match other { Value::Float(f) => Ok(f), _ => Err(Error::BadVariableType), } } } impl From<bool> for Value { fn from(b: bool) -> Value { Value::Bool(b) } } impl From<i32> for Value { fn from(i: i32) -> Value { Value::Integer(i) } } impl From<f64> for Value { fn from(d: f64) -> Value { Value::Float(d) } } fn wasm_read_input( ctx: &mut Ctx, address: u32, buffer: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, buffer_len: i32, ) -> i32 { let mut temp_buffer = vec![0; buffer_len.try_into().unwrap()]; unsafe { try_with_env!( ctx, read_input(address.try_into().unwrap(), &mut temp_buffer[..]), "Unable to read the input" ); } wasm_deref!(with ctx, *buffer = for byte in temp_buffer); WASM_SUCCESS } fn wasm_write_output( ctx: &mut Ctx, address: u32, data: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, data_len: i32, ) -> i32 { let buffer: Vec<u8> = match data.deref(ctx.memory(0), 0, data_len.try_into().unwrap()) { Some(slice) => slice.iter().map(|cell| cell.get()).collect(), None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR, }; unsafe { try_with_env!( ctx, write_output(address.try_into().unwrap(), &buffer), "Unable to set outputs" ); } WASM_SUCCESS } fn variable_get_and_map<F, Q, T>( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: WasmPtr<Q>, map: F, ) -> i32 where F: FnOnce(T) -> Q, T: TryFrom<Value>, Q: wasmer_runtime::types::ValueType, { let name = match name .get_utf8_string(ctx.memory(0), name_len.try_into().unwrap()) { Some(n) => n, None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR, }; let variable = unsafe { try_with_env!( ctx, get_variable(name), "Unable to retrieve the variable" ) }; let variable = match T::try_from(variable) { Ok(v) => v, _ => return WASM_BAD_VARIABLE_TYPE, }; match value.deref(ctx.memory(0)) { Some(cell) => { cell.set(map(variable)); WASM_SUCCESS }, None => WASM_GENERIC_ERROR, } } fn wasm_variable_read_boolean( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: WasmPtr<u8>, ) -> i32 { variable_get_and_map( ctx, name, name_len, value, |b: bool| if b { 1 } else { 0 }, ) } fn wasm_variable_read_int( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: WasmPtr<i32>, ) -> i32 { variable_get_and_map(ctx, name, name_len, value, |i| i) } fn wasm_variable_read_double( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: WasmPtr<f64>, ) -> i32 { variable_get_and_map(ctx, name, name_len, value, |d| d) } fn set_variable<F, Q, T>( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: Q, map: F, ) -> i32 where F: FnOnce(Q) -> T, T: Into<Value>, { let name = match name .get_utf8_string(ctx.memory(0), name_len.try_into().unwrap()) { Some(n) => n, None => return WASM_GENERIC_ERROR, }; let value = map(value).into(); unsafe { try_with_env!( ctx, set_variable(name, value), "Unable to set the variable" ) }; WASM_SUCCESS } fn wasm_variable_write_boolean( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: u8, ) -> i32 { set_variable(ctx, name, name_len, value, |v| v != 0) } fn wasm_variable_write_int( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: i32, ) -> i32 { set_variable(ctx, name, name_len, value, |v| v) } fn wasm_variable_write_double( ctx: &mut Ctx, name: WasmPtr<u8, Array>, name_len: i32, value: f64, ) -> i32 { set_variable(ctx, name, name_len, value, |v| v) }  ## Creating Our “Standard Library” Technically we now have everything we need so users can write programs that run on our motion controller, but manually writing extern blocks at the top of every program is pretty clunky. In most systems you’ll have a “Standard Library” which provides bindings to the host environment (typically the OS) and higher-level abstractions. Why should our system be any different? We’ll start by creating a new crate for our standard library, imaginatively called wasm_std, and add it to the current workspace. $ cd ..
$cargo new --lib --name wasm_std std Created library wasm_std package  Before we can throw intrinsics.h at bindgen we need to create type definitions for the various integer types in stdint.h. Normally bindgen would be able to use types from std::os::raw, but because we aren’t using the standard library we don’t have access to them. Likewise we can’t use the types from libc because that would mean linking to libc, which isn’t an option either. See the issue on GitHub if you’re interested. // std/src/ctypes.rs //! Re-exports of C types on a "normal" x86 computer. Normally you'd use //! std::os::raw or libc, but in our case that's not possible. //! //! Most of these definitions are copied straight from libc's source code. #![allow(bad_style, dead_code)] // src/libc/unix/linux_like/linux/gnu/b64/x86_64/mod.rs pub type c_char = i8; pub type wchar_t = i32; // src/libc/unix/linux_like/linux/gnu/b64/x86_64/not_x32.rs pub type c_long = i64; pub type c_ulong = u64; // src/libc/unix/mod.rs pub type c_schar = i8; pub type c_uchar = u8; pub type c_short = i16; pub type c_ushort = u16; pub type c_int = i32; pub type c_uint = u32; pub type c_float = f32; pub type c_double = f64; pub type c_longlong = i64; pub type c_ulonglong = u64; pub type intmax_t = i64; pub type uintmax_t = u64; pub type size_t = usize; pub type ptrdiff_t = isize; pub type intptr_t = isize; pub type uintptr_t = usize; pub type ssize_t = isize;  We can now generate declarations for intrinsics.h. This will be analogous to std::intrinsics in Rust’s standard library. After a bit of trial and error, this incantation seemed to generate the output we want without trying to add declarations for half of libc. $ cp ../intrinsics.h .
$bindgen intrinsics.h \ --whitelist-type 'wasm_.*' \ --whitelist-function 'wasm_.*' \ --output src/intrinsics.rs \ --use-core \ --ctypes-prefix crate::ctypes \ --raw-line '#![allow(bad_style, dead_code)]'$ tail src/intrinsics.rs
extern "C" {
/// Write to a globally defined integer variable.
///
/// This may fail if the variable already exists and has a different type.
pub fn wasm_variable_write_int(
name: *const ::std::os::raw::c_char,
name_len: ::std::os::raw::c_int,
value: i32,
) -> wasm_result_t;
}


Our lib.rs needs to be updated to use intrinsics.

// std/lib.rs

//! The standard library, providing host bindings and abstractions.

// we are the standard library.
#![no_std]

pub mod intrinsics;


While it’s still quite small at the moment, as we gain more experience using this system we’ll be able to move commonly-used elements into the standard library to provide a more batteries included feel.

Now we have a standard library we can rewrite our previous example-program.rs.

$cd ../examples/wasm-programs$ rm example-program.rs
$cargo new example-program$ cd example-program


We need to add our standard library as a dependency.

$cargo add ../../../std Updating 'https://github.com/rust-lang/crates.io-index' index Adding wasm-std (unknown version) to dependencies  Because this crate is being compiled to Wasm we’ll need to make sure it is compiled using the cdylib crate type. # examples/wasm-programs/example-program/Cargo.toml [package] name = "example-program" version = "0.1.0" authors = ["Michael Bryan <michaelfbryan@gmail.com>"] edition = "2018" [lib] crate-type = ["cdylib"] [dependencies] wasm-std = { path = "../../../../std/" }  At some point we’ll want to create a nice println!() macro instead of invoking the wasm_log() intrinsic directly, but for now here’s the equivalent of our original program. // examples/wasm-programs/example-program/src/lib.rs #![no_std] use wasm_std::intrinsics::{ self, wasm_log_level_LOG_INFO as LOG_INFO, wasm_result_t_WASM_SUCCESS as WASM_SUCCESS, }; #[no_mangle] pub extern "C" fn poll() { unsafe { let file = file!(); let msg = "Polling\n"; let ret = intrinsics::wasm_log( LOG_INFO, file.as_ptr() as *const _, file.len() as _, line!() as _, msg.as_ptr() as *const _, msg.len() as _, ); assert_eq!(ret, WASM_SUCCESS); } }  We should now be able to build this crate. $ cargo build
Compiling wasm-std v0.1.0 (/home/michael/Documents/wasm/std)
Compiling example-program v0.1.0 (/home/michael/Documents/wasm/examples/wasm-programs/example-program)
error: #[panic_handler] function required, but not found

error: aborting due to previous error

error: could not compile example-program.



Oops! Looks like using assert_eq!() requires code for handling panics.

To make sure normal users don’t need to define a #[panic_handler] for every program, we’ll implement it in our standard library. We can just use Wasm’s unreachable command for now. This will trigger the corresponding “trap” on the Wasm virtual machine and immediately stop execution.

// std/src/sys.rs

#![cfg(all(not(test), target_arch = "wasm32"))]

use core::panic::PanicInfo;

#[panic_handler]
pub fn panic_handler(info: &PanicInfo) -> ! {
core::arch::wasm32::unreachable()
}


Now we can successfully compile and run our program.

$cargo build --target wasm32-unknown-unknown Compiling wasm-std v0.1.0 (/home/michael/Documents/wasm/std) Compiling example-program v0.1.0 (/home/michael/Documents/wasm/examples/wasm-programs/example-program) Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.21s$ ls target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/debug
build  deps  example_program.d  example_program.wasm  examples  incremental
$cd ../../..$ cargo run --example basic-runtime -- examples/wasm-programs/example-program/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/debug/example_program.wasm

^C


Oh, we forgot to add env_logger as a dev-dependency and initialize it in the basic-runtime.rs example.

diff --git a/wasm/examples/basic-runtime.rs b/wasm/examples/basic-runtime.rs
index de2017d..586d54d 100644
--- a/wasm/examples/basic-runtime.rs
+++ b/wasm/examples/basic-runtime.rs
@@ -2,6 +2,8 @@ use wasm::{InMemory, Program};
use std::env;

fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
+    env_logger::init();
+
let wasm_file = match env::args().skip(1).next() {
Some(filename) => filename,
None => panic!("Usage: basic-runtime <wasm-file>"),


Now it should work.

RUST_LOG=info cargo run --example basic-runtime -- examples/wasm-programs/example-program/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/debug/example_program.wasm
Compiling wasm v0.1.0 (/home/michael/Documents/wasm)
Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 1.14s
Running /home/michael/Documents/wasm/target/debug/examples/basic-runtime examples/wasm-programs/example-program/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/debug/example_program.wasm
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
[2019-12-11T10:12:25Z INFO ] Polling
^C


Huzzah!

## Testing Everything

So now we can run an example program, but needing to manually set up a crate and compile it every time isn’t the best method of testing. It’d be better if our test suite could automatically compile and run a collection of programs, feeding it pre-defined inputs, and making sure it behaved as expected.

Rust’s compiletest is a really good example of this in action. At this point it’s worth taking a peek at rustc's test suite to see how similar projects are tested. Hopefully we can use it as inspiration.

When testing the compiler’s error message the compiler’s test suite will contain a *.rs file containing code which annotates offending lines (e.g. using a comment like //~ ERROR: ...) and a *.stderr file containing the exact output from STDOUT.

A simple example of this is rust/src/test/ui/empty/empty-linkname.rs for detecting when the name parameter passed to #[link] is empty.

#[link(name = "")] //~ ERROR: given with empty name
extern {
}

fn main() {}


The contents of empty-linkname.stderr looks like this:

error[E0454]: #[link(name = "")] given with empty name
--> $DIR/empty-linkname.rs:1:1 | LL | #[link(name = "")] | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ empty name given error: aborting due to previous error For more information about this error, try rustc --explain E0454.  We can take a fairly similar approach when designing a test suite for the runtime. Tests will consist of two files, some source code (written in Rust) and a file containing some representation of the expected output. The main difference between our runtime’s tests and rustc's UI tests is that we’ll need to incorporate a time element into the expected output. The output is also less tangible, rustc's error messages are just text written to STDERR compared to the array of binary that our runtime uses for outputs. It’s also easy for rustc's test suite to compile a single *.rs file and inspect the output, it’s something you could concievably implement using a bash script. On the other hand, our compilation process is non-trivial, and the requirement for inspecting changing inputs over time requires us to instrument the runtime to insert checks for expected behaviour after every call to Program::poll(). Based on our previous experimentation, let’s write down a simple testing procedure: 1. Write a file containing some program that uses our standard library and does something interesting 2. Create a new crate in a temporary directory (e.g. /tmp.123/) 3. Make sure that crate depends on our standard library 4. Copy the file from step 1 to lib.rs in the temporary crate 5. Compile it 6. Find the *.wasm file under /tmp.123/target/wasm32-unknown-unknown/debug/ and read it into memory 7. Use Program::load() to instantiate that Wasm module 8. Continually poll() the program setting up inputs according to some pre-defined Recipe and make sure outputs change as expected This may end up being a little complex so let’s create a wasm-test helper crate and add it to our workspace. $ cargo new --lib wasm-test


We’ll also be needing a couple dependencies.

$cargo add log tempfile serde serde_derive serde_json anyhow ../wasm Updating 'https://github.com/rust-lang/crates.io-index' index Adding log v0.4.8 to dependencies Adding tempfile v3.1.0 to dependencies Adding serde v1.0.103 to dependencies Adding serde_derive v1.0.103 to dependencies Adding serde_json v1.0.44 to dependencies Adding anyhow v1.0.25 to dependencies Adding wasm (unknown version) to dependencies  Looking back at steps 2 and 3, when creating our temporary crate we’ll need to make sure the Cargo.toml is set up correctly. There are a lot of advanced templating libraries out there, but for our purposes string.replace()-style “templates” should be more than sufficient. // wasm-test/src/compile.rs const CARGO_TOML_TEMPLATE: &str = r#" [package] name = "$TEST_NAME"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["Michael Bryan <michaelfbryan@gmail.com>"]
edition = "2018"

[dependencies]
wasm-std = { path = "$STD_PATH" } [lib] path = "lib.rs" crate-type = ["cdylib"] "#;  The other compilation-related tasks are fairly straightforward to automate using by just shelling out to std::process::Command. We can develop better tooling in time, but this crude implementation should suffice for now. // wasm-test/src/compile.rs use anyhow::{Error, Context}; use std::{fs, path::Path}; use tempfile::TempDir; fn compile_to_wasm( name: &str, src: &str, target_dir: &Path, std_manifest_dir: &Path, ) -> Result<Vec<u8>, Error> { // first we'll need a directory for our crate let dir = TempDir::new().context("Unable to create a temporary dir")?; // then create a Cargo.toml file let std_manifest_dir = std_manifest_dir.display().to_string(); let cargo_toml = CARGO_TOML_TEMPLATE .replace("$TEST_NAME", name)
.replace("$STD_PATH", &std_manifest_dir); let cargo_toml_path = dir.path().join("Cargo.toml"); fs::write(&cargo_toml_path, cargo_toml) .context("Couldn't write Cargo.toml")?; // copy our source code across fs::write(dir.path().join("lib.rs"), src) .context("Couldn't write lib.rs")?; // compile to wasm let output = Command::new("cargo") .arg("build") .arg("--manifest-path") .arg(&cargo_toml_path) .arg("--target-dir") .arg(&target_dir) .arg("--target") .arg("wasm32-unknown-unknown") .arg("--offline") .status() .context("Unable to start cargo")?; anyhow::ensure!(output.success(), "Compilation failed"); // look for the Wasm file using a hard-coded path let blob = target_dir .join("wasm32-unknown-unknown") .join("debug") .join(name) .with_extension("wasm"); fs::read(&blob) .with_context(|| format!("Unable to read \"{}\"", blob.display())) }  To avoid having to always provide the target_dir and std_manifest_dir parameters every time we can wrap them up inside some sort of Compiler struct. // wasm-test/src/compile.rs #[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq)] pub struct Compiler { std_manifest_dir: PathBuf, target_dir: PathBuf, }  From here, instantiating a Wasm program can be implemented as a method on Compiler which just calls compile_to_wasm() and Program::load(). // wasm-test/src/compile.rs use wasm::Program; impl Compiler { pub fn instantiate(&self, name: &str, src: &str) -> Result<Program, Error> { let wasm = compile_to_wasm( name, src, &self.target_dir, &self.std_manifest_dir, ) .unwrap(); Program::load(&wasm) .map_err(|e| anyhow::format_err!("Wasm loading failed: {}", e)) } }  Next, we need some sort of TestCase which can be loaded from disk. In this case some-program.rs will be the code being tested and some-program.json will contain a Recipe dictating the expected behaviour. We’ll need to derive Serialize and Deserialize so the Recipe can be loaded from JSON. // wasm-test/src/test_case.rs use serde_derive::{Deserialize, Serialize}; use std::time::Duration; /// A single test case. #[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq)] pub struct TestCase { pub name: String, pub src: String, pub recipe: Recipe, } /// A series of snapshots containing inputs and expected outputs for the test /// program. #[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq, Serialize, Deserialize)] pub struct Recipe { pub passes: Vec<Pass>, } /// The inputs and expected outputs for a single call to [Program::poll()]. #[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq, Serialize, Deserialize)] pub struct Pass { #[serde(with = "humantime_serde")] pub elapsed: Duration, pub inputs: Vec<u8>, pub expected_outputs: Vec<u8>, #[serde(default)] pub expected_log_messages: Vec<String>, }  We’ll also need constructors which can load a TestCase from a *.rs and *.json file on disk. // wasm-test/src/test_case.rs use anyhow::{Context, Error}; impl TestCase { pub fn load<P, Q>(src_file: P, recipe_file: Q) -> Result<TestCase, Error> where P: AsRef<Path>, Q: AsRef<Path>, { let src_file = src_file.as_ref(); let name = src_file .file_name() .and_then(|n| n.to_str()) .ok_or_else(|| { anyhow::format_err!("Unable to determine the filename") })?; let src = fs::read_to_string(src_file) .context("Couldn't read the source file")?; let recipe = fs::read_to_string(recipe_file) .context("Couldn't read the recipe file")?; TestCase::parse(name, src, recipe) } pub fn parse<N, S, R>(name: N, src: S, recipe: R) -> Result<TestCase, Error> where N: Into<String>, S: Into<String>, R: AsRef<str>, { let name = name.into(); let src = src.into(); let recipe = serde_json::from_str(recipe.as_ref()) .context("Recipe parsing failed")?; Ok(TestCase { name, src, recipe }) } }  We also need an implementation of Environment for testing purposes. This is the “instrumenting” part mentioned earlier. // wasm-test/src/environment.rs use log::Level; use std::time::Duration; #[derive(Debug, Default, Clone, PartialEq)] pub struct TestEnvironment { pub elapsed: Duration, pub inputs: Vec<u8>, pub outputs: Vec<u8>, pub log_messages: Vec<(Level, String)>, pub variables: HashMap<String, Value>, }  Implementing the Environment trait is more tedious than anything else. // wasm-test/src/environment.rs use wasm::{Environment, Error as WasmError}; impl wasm::Environment for TestEnvironment { fn elapsed(&self) -> Result<Duration, WasmError> { Ok(self.elapsed) } fn read_input( &self, address: usize, buffer: &mut [u8], ) -> Result<(), WasmError> { let src = self .inputs .get(address..address + buffer.len()) .ok_or(WasmError::AddressOutOfBounds)?; buffer.copy_from_slice(src); Ok(()) } fn write_output( &mut self, address: usize, buffer: &[u8], ) -> Result<(), WasmError> { let dest = self .outputs .get_mut(address..address + buffer.len()) .ok_or(WasmError::AddressOutOfBounds)?; dest.copy_from_slice(buffer); Ok(()) } fn log(&mut self, record: &Record<'_>) -> Result<(), WasmError> { self.log_messages .push((record.level(), record.args().to_string())); Ok(()) } fn get_variable(&self, name: &str) -> Result<Value, WasmError> { self.variables .get(name) .copied() .ok_or(WasmError::UnknownVariable) } fn set_variable( &mut self, name: &str, value: Value, ) -> Result<(), WasmError> { use std::collections::hash_map::Entry; match self.variables.entry(name.to_string()) { Entry::Vacant(vacant) => { vacant.insert(value); }, Entry::Occupied(mut occupied) => { if occupied.get().kind() == value.kind() { occupied.insert(value); } else { return Err(WasmError::BadVariableType); } }, } Ok(()) } }  We should also add some code for doing the setup and comparison steps when polling. // wasm-test/src/environment.rs use crate::Pass; use anyhow::Error; impl TestEnvironment { pub fn setup(&mut self, pass: &Pass) { self.elapsed = pass.elapsed; self.load_inputs(&pass.inputs); self.outputs.clear(); self.outputs .extend(std::iter::repeat(0).take(pass.expected_outputs.len())); self.log_messages.clear(); } fn load_inputs(&mut self, inputs: &[u8]) { self.inputs.clear(); self.inputs.extend(inputs); } pub fn compare(&self, pass: &Pass) -> Result<(), Error> { if self.outputs != pass.expected_outputs { anyhow::bail!("{:?} != {:?}", self.outputs, pass.expected_outputs); } // create a temporary set containing all log messages let mut log_messages: Vec<_> = self .log_messages .iter() .map(|(_, msg)| msg.clone()) .collect(); for msg in &pass.expected_log_messages { match log_messages.iter().position(|logged| logged.contains(msg)) { Some(position) => { // we've found the message, remove it from the list of // candidates and go to the next one. log_messages.remove(position); }, None => anyhow::bail!( "Unable to find log message \"{}\" in {:?}", msg, self.log_messages ), } } if !log_messages.is_empty() { anyhow::bail!("Unexpected log messages: {:?}", log_messages); } Ok(()) } }  Our wasm-test crate can now compile a Rust program to Wasm and link it to our standard library, instantiate the Wasm module, load a pre-defined test recipe, and create a test Environment. Now we just need a way to execute a particular test case and the wasm-test crate will be complete. // wasm-test/src/lib.rs mod compile; mod environment; mod test_case; pub use compile::Compiler; pub use environment::TestEnvironment; pub use test_case::{Pass, Recipe, TestCase}; use anyhow::{Context, Error}; pub fn run_test_case( compiler: &Compiler, test_case: &TestCase, ) -> Result<(), Error> { let mut wasm = compiler .instantiate(&test_case.name, &test_case.src) .context("Unable to load the Wasm module")?; let mut env = TestEnvironment::default(); for pass in &test_case.recipe.passes { env.setup(pass); wasm.poll(&mut env) .map_err(|e| Error::msg(e.to_string())) .context("Polling failed")?; env.compare(pass).context("Output comparison failed")?; } Ok(()) }  Now the wasm-test crate is up and running we can go back to the wasm crate’s integration tests. I’ve copied the example-program.rs from the last section into the tests/data/ directory and written up a simple example_program.json file which will make sure it prints "Polling". // tests/data/example_program.json { "passes": [ { "elapsed": "50ms", "inputs": [], "expected_outputs": [], "expected_log_messages": [ "Polling" ] } ] }  To make sure we’ve wired up the wasm_write_output() function correctly, there’s also a set_outputs.rs test program. // tests/data/set_outputs.rs #![no_std] use wasm_std::intrinsics::{ self, wasm_result_t_WASM_SUCCESS as WASM_SUCCESS, }; const ADDRESS: u32 = 1; #[no_mangle] pub extern "C" fn poll() { let payload = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]; unsafe { let ret = intrinsics::wasm_write_output( ADDRESS, payload.as_ptr(), payload.len() as _, ); assert_eq!(ret, WASM_SUCCESS); } }  And its accompanying *.json file: // tests/data/set_outputs.json { "passes": [ { "elapsed": "50ms", "inputs": [], "expected_outputs": [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0] } ] }  Now we just need to make sure the test programs get run and behave as expected. For this we’ll create the aptly-named behaviour_tests.rs integration test under tests/. Thanks to the work we did earlier, loading and running an integration test becomes really easy. // tests/behaviour_tests.rs use anyhow::Context; use wasm_test::{TestCase, Compiler}; #[test] fn set_outputs() { let _ = env_logger::try_init(); let src = include_str!("data/set_outputs.rs"); let recipe = include_str!("data/set_outputs.json"); let tc = TestCase::parse(set_outputs, src, recipe) .context("Unable to load the test case").unwrap(); let compiler = Compiler::default(); wasm_test::run_test_case(&compiler, &tc).unwrap(); }  If we want to make more tests, one way would be to copy the set_outputs function and replace every instance of "set_outputs" with the name of the tests. That sounds kinda annoying. Normally you would try to extract the testing logic out into another function, but that wouldn’t let us run each test program as its own test. Luckily, macros exist for exactly this sort of thing! // tests/behaviour_tests.rs use anyhow::Context; use wasm_test::{Compiler, TestCase}; macro_rules! wasm_test { ($filename:ident, $($rest:ident ),*) => {
wasm_test!($filename); wasm_test!($($rest),*); }; ($filename:ident) => {
#[test]
fn $filename() { let _ = env_logger::try_init(); let src = include_str!(concat!("data/", stringify!($filename), ".rs"));
let recipe = include_str!(concat!("data/", stringify!($filename), ".json")); let tc = TestCase::parse(stringify!($filename), src, recipe)
.context("Unable to load the test case").unwrap();
let compiler = Compiler::default();

wasm_test::run_test_case(&compiler, &tc).unwrap();
}
};
}

wasm_test!(example_program, set_outputs);


We can check that these tests are actually working by inserting some deliberate bugs.

diff --git a/tests/data/example_program.json b/tests/data/example_program.json
--- a/tests/data/example_program.json
+++ b/tests/data/example_program.json
@@ -1,10 +1,12 @@
{
"passes": [
{
"elapsed": "50ms",
"inputs": [],
"expected_outputs": [],
"expected_log_messages": [
-                "Polling"
+                "Polling",
+                "Another log message"
]
}
]
diff --git a/tests/data/set_outputs.rs b/tests/data/set_outputs.rs
--- a/tests/data/set_outputs.rs
+++ b/tests/data/set_outputs.rs
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ use wasm_std::intrinsics::{
self, wasm_result_t_WASM_SUCCESS as WASM_SUCCESS,
};

#[no_mangle]
pub extern "C" fn poll() {


And if we execute the test suite again, we’re shown a couple errors:

\$ cargo test
Finished test [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.24s

Running /home/michael/Documents/wasm/target/debug/deps/behaviour_tests-321146c56a045437

running 2 tests
Compiling set_outputs v0.1.0 (/tmp/.tmpYX6WZH)
Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.24s
Compiling example_program v0.1.0 (/tmp/.tmpk3eAvE)
Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.77s
test example_program ... FAILED
test set_outputs ... FAILED

failures:

---- example_program stdout ----
thread 'example_program' panicked at 'called Result::unwrap() on an Err value: Output comparison failed

Caused by:
Unable to find log message "Another log message" in [(Info, "Polling")]', src/libcore/result.rs:1189:5
note: run with RUST_BACKTRACE=1 environment variable to display a backtrace.

---- set_outputs stdout ----
thread 'set_outputs' panicked at 'called Result::unwrap() on an Err value: Output comparison failed

Caused by:
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0] != [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0]', src/libcore/result.rs:1189:5

failures:
example_program
set_outputs

test result: FAILED. 0 passed; 2 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

error: test failed, to rerun pass '--test behaviour_tests'
`

## Conclusion

It’s been a long road, but now we have a really good foundation for working with Wasm programs!

There’s still a lot of room for improvement, and the host environment still looks quite bare, but this implementation does everything I need to unblock other parts of my project.